Medical Oncology

Acute lymphoblast leukemia

Acute lymphoblast leukemia


Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is a type of cancer of the blood and bone marrow -the spongy tissue inside bones where blood cells are made. The word “acute” in acute lymphocytic leukemia comes from the fact that the disease progresses rapidly and creates immature blood cells, rather than mature ones. The word “lymphocytic” in acute lymphocytic leukemia refers to the white blood cells called lymphocytes, which ALL affects. Acute lymphocytic leukemia is also known as acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Acute lymphocytic leukemia is the most common type of cancer in children, and treatments result in a good chance for a cure. Acute lymphocytic leukemia can also occur in adults, though the chance of a cure is greatly reduced.




Acute myeloid leukemia


Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) starts in the bone marrow (the soft inner part of certain bones, where new blood cells are made), but most often it quickly moves into the blood, as well. It can sometimes spread to other parts of the body including the lymph nodes, liver, spleen, central nervous system (brain and spinal cord), and testicles. It is a type of blood cancer. It usually begins in cells that turn into white blood cells. Sometimes, though, AML can start in other types of blood-forming cells.

With acute types of leukemia such as AML, bone marrow cells don’t mature the way they’re supposed to. These immature cells, often called blast cells, keep building up.


Acute myeloid leukemia



Hodgkin’s and Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma

Hodgkin’s and Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma


Both Hodgkin’s lymphoma and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma are lymphomas — a type of cancer that begins in a subset of white blood cells called lymphocytes. Lymphocytes are an integral part of your immune system, which protects you from germs. The main difference between Hodgkin’s lymphoma and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is in the specific lymphocyte each involves.

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is more common than Hodgkin lymphoma. The majority of non-Hodgkin patients are over the age of 55 when first diagnosed, whereas the median age for diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma is 39. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma may arise in lymph nodes anywhere in the body, whereas Hodgkin lymphoma typically begins in the upper body, such as the neck, chest or armpits.




Multiple myeloma


Multiple myeloma is a cancer that forms in a type of white blood cell called a plasma cell. Plasma cells help you fight infections by making antibodies that recognize and attack germs. Multiple myeloma causes cancer cells to accumulate in the bone marrow, where they crowd out healthy blood cells. Rather than produce helpful antibodies, the cancer cells produce abnormal proteins that can cause complications. Treatment for multiple myeloma isn’t always necessary for people who aren’t experiencing any signs or symptoms. For people with multiple myeloma who require treatment, a number of treatments are available to help control the disease.


Multiple myeloma



Urinary bladder cancer

Urinary bladder cancer


The bladder is a hollow organ that collects urine from the kidneys through the ureters for storage and eventual removal from the body through the urethra. Bladder cancer is the abnormal growth of bladder cells and is a common cancer; men have a higher risk of getting bladder cancer than women. The most common symptom of bladder cancer is bleeding in the urine (hematuria). The prognosis of bladder cancer ranges from good to poor and depends on the stage and grade of the cancer. People may reduce the risk of bladder cancer by not smoking and by avoiding environmental carcinogens. The exact cause of bladder cancer is unknown. It occurs when abnormal cells grow and multiply quickly and uncontrollably, and invade other tissues.




Breast cancer


Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast begin to grow out of control. These cells usually form a tumor that can often be seen on an x-ray or felt as a lump. The tumor is malignant (cancer) if the cells can grow into (invade) surrounding tissues or spread (metastasize) to distant areas of the body.  Surgery is usually the first type of treatment for breast cancer. The type of surgery you undergo will depend on the type of breast cancer you have. Surgery is usually followed by chemotherapy or radiotherapy or, in some cases, hormone or biological treatments. Again, the treatment you’ll have will depend on the type of breast cancer. We discuss the most suitable treatment plan with you. Chemotherapy or hormone therapy will sometimes be the first treatment.

Breast Cancer Hospital In Pune



Lung cancer

Lung cancer


Lung cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the lungs. Your lungs are two spongy organs in your chest that take in oxygen when you inhale and release carbon dioxide when you exhale. If a doctor identifies a suspicious lesion on a lung cancer screening, or a person is experiencing symptoms that could indicate lung cancer, several diagnostic tests are available to confirm the next steps. Treatment of lung cancer can involve a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, and radiation therapy as well as newer experimental methods. The general prognosis of lung cancer is poor because doctors tend not to find the disease until it is at an advanced stage.




Ovarian cancer


Ovarian cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the ovaries. The female reproductive system contains two ovaries, one on each side of the uterus. The ovaries -each about the size of an almond – produce eggs (ova) as well as the hormones estrogen and progesterone. Ovarian cancer often goes undetected until it has spread within the pelvis and abdomen. At this late stage, ovarian cancer is more difficult to treat. Early-stage ovarian cancer, in which the disease is confined to the ovary, is more likely to be treated successfully.

Ovarian cancer often goes undetected until it has spread within the pelvis and abdomen. At this late stage, ovarian cancer is more difficult to treat. Early-stage ovarian cancer, in which the disease is confined to the ovary, is more likely to be treated successfully.


Ovarian cancer



Esophageal cancer

Esophageal cancer


Esophageal cancer is cancer that occurs in the esophagus – a long, hollow tube that runs from your throat to your stomach. Your esophagus helps move the food you swallow from the back of your throat to your stomach to be digested. Esophageal cancer usually begins in the cells that line the inside of the esophagus. Esophageal cancer can occur anywhere along the esophagus. More men than women get esophageal cancer.

Esophageal cancer is the sixth most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Incidence rates vary within different geographic locations. In some regions, higher rates of esophageal cancer cases may be attributed to tobacco and alcohol use or particular nutritional habits and obesity.




Prostate cancer


Prostate cancer is somewhat unusual when compared with other types of cancer. This is because many prostate tumors do not spread quickly to other parts of the body. Some prostate cancers grow very slowly and may not cause symptoms or problems for years or ever. Even when prostate cancer has spread to other parts of the body, it often can be managed for a long time, allowing men even with advanced prostate cancer to live with good health and quality of life for many years. However, if the cancer cannot be well controlled with existing treatments, it can cause symptoms like pain and fatigue and can sometimes lead to death. An important part of managing prostate cancer is monitoring it for growth over time, to determine whether it is growing slowly or quickly. Based on the pattern of growth, your doctor can decide the best available treatment options and when to give them.


Prostate cancer



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